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URL - Uniform Resource Locator

The beginning of the Web as a publicly available service on the Internet arrived on August 6, 1991, when Berners-Lee published the first-ever website. Fittingly, the site was about the World Wide Web project, describing the Web and how to use it. Hosted at CERN on Berners-Lee’s NeXT computer, the site’s URL was http://info.cern.ch.

Is a URL the same as a domain name?

Surprisingly to many, the answer is no. But the terms are used so interchangeably, it’s understandable why people confuse one for the other. But there is a difference. A domain name is part of a URL..

Here's a lovely article on the history of the URL. 

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Additional Info

In order for computer networks and servers to “talk to one another,” computers rely on a language made up of numbers and letters called an IP address. Every device that connects to the Internet has a unique IP address and looks something like this:

22.231.113.64 or 3ffe:1900:4545:3:200:f8ff:fe21:67cf

In order to navigate easily around the web, typing in a long IP address isn’t ideal, or realistic, to an online user. This is the reason why domain names were created – to hide IP addresses with something more memorable. You could consider the domain name as a “nickname” to the IP address.

Internetworking

Internetworking is the connection of computer networks through gateways and routers. 

Connecting computer networks to additional networks using gateways and routers is commonly known as internetworking. These interconnected networks are called internetworks. The most common example of this is the Internet itself. Wide area networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs) and personal area networks (PANs) are other types of internetworks, but most internetworking is done through Internet routers.

Internetworking involves using applications like Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to provide a reliable stream of data transfer between networks. You might also utilize a User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which is used to send messages in applications that don't require a constant real-time service.

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