01 - Structure and function of the processor

 1. What part of a computer system is most directly concerned with performing the actions called for by a program?
This part is also commonly known as the "brain" of the computer - the crucial part!

  The monitor

  The hard disk .

  The processor

  Main storage

 2. About how many different fundamental operations can most processors perform

  Thousands ….

  Just two


  Just a single instruction or operation

 3. What is a machine instruction?

  A byte that contains numeric data.

  A particular combination of keys on the keyboard that turns the computer system off.

  Several bytes in main memory that tells the processor to perform one machine operation.

  An electrical signal that activates the processor.

 4. Programming in machine code is very difficult as binary numbers are hard for a human to read and understand.To make things easier for programmers, the chip makers provide an 'Assembly Language' for their CPU



 5. How many machine instructions can execute per second on a modern processor?

  1 instruction per second

  Up to 1000 (or in some cases 10,000) instructions per second

  Millions of instructions per second

  Ten instructions per second

 6. The architecture of a processor chip is a description of its basic components and of its basic operations. Each processor family has its own architecture.



 7. The purpose of the CPU is to process data. The CPU is responsible for the following:

  All of the above


  Decision making and calculating


 8. The CPU is NOT responsible for controlling all the other component parts of the computer e.g. Hard Disk, Graphics System etc.



 9. The CPU is a very complicated little chip which contains billions of individual transistors. Which of the following is NOT a main part of the CPU.
Control Unit, Arithmetic Logic Unit, The Registers, the RAM

  The Control Unit

  All of the items on the list are part of the CPU (are inside it)

  The Registers

  The RAM

 10. There are ______________ that connect all the parts together.

  two main SATA cables

  256 main memory registers

  three main buses (Data, Address and Control)

  None of the above

 11. The Control Unit has the following jobs/functions:

  Controls and monitors the flow of data between the CPU and other components (e.g. input devices)

  All of the above are valid descriptions of the control unit's role

  It executes the instructions provided by the program

  Controls the way that data moves around the CPU by controlling the buses

 12. The collection of instructions that the control unit can carry out is called the ____________________. This _______ was hard wired into the CPU when designed.

  instruction set

  Machine control

  binary bit sequence

  control signal

 13. The ALU consists of two types of processing: Arithmetic operations and _________ operations that deal with comparisons and other logic.



  assembly code


 14. The result from the ALU tends to be stored in the accumulator register.



 15. Along with the result generated by the ALU a set of _________ are set which include 'Zero' 'Carry' 'Negative' and __________
In the operation 3-4 = -1, the negative flag would be set.

  bits / positive

  assembly code instructions / positive

  binary sequences / overflow

  status flags / overflow

 16. A register is a type of memory inside the CPU. A register can ….

  explode if touched (they are incased in thin gold leaves)

  hold a data value

  act on the arithmetic logic unit

  hold several million bytes of assembly language and execute it

 17. An 8 bit CPU would have 16 registers on it and a 16 bit CPU would have 32 registers and so on…



 18. Registers are used to hold ____________ while a software program is running



  temporary data

  assembly code

 19. It is much ________to shift data to and from the registers than to the cache or RAM


  less efficient


  more cumbersome

 20. The contents held in the CPU to be processed have to be copied from main memory into a special regsiter called the ______ which holds them temporarily.
This is done via the data bus.




  Program counter

 21. The purpose of the ______is to temporarily store the address (location) of the next data or instruction in main memory,
It is connected via the address bus



  Program counter


 22. When an instruction is fetched from main memory, it is later copied into the _________.

  Program counter




 23. The _________ holds the current instruction ready for decoding and executing by the Control Unit


  Program counter



 24. The 'Current Instruction' has two parts. The ______ and the operand (the_________ acts on the operand)


  LMC set

  ADD instruction

  branch set

 25. The operand (which is acted on) contains data, a memory address or sometimes both.



 26. The purpose of the __________ is to store the location (address) of the next instruction.
When it is time to fetch the next instruction, the content of the program counter (PC) is loaded into the MAR




  Program counter

 27. Simple linear programs would just ______________ the program counter, but there is also the option of using ________________ to jump to another location entirely.

  increment / branch instructions

  binary shift / assembly code

  None of the above

  decrement / top bits

 28. Each CPU family has its own instruction set. They are machine specific.



 29. Instruction sets may be categorized by the maximum number of operands explicitly specified in instructions.



 30. An _______________ program describes exactly what the hardware should do, step by step, in terms of the basic operations of the hardware

  operand program



  assembly language