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There are five Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) in the world. RIRs manage, distribute, and register Internet number resources (IPv4 and IPv6 address space and Autonomous System (AS) Numbers) within their respective regions. Check out the website for additional reading here.
Internet assigned numbers authority
IANA are responsible for global coordination of the Internet Protocol addressing systems, as well as the Autonomous System Numbers used for routing Internet traffic.
Important > IPv4 vs IPv6
Currently there are two types of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses in active use: IP version 4 (IPv4) and IP version 6 (IPv6). IPv4 was initially deployed on 1 January 1983 and is still the most commonly used version.
Regional Internet Registries (RIRs)
RIRs operate in large, geopolitical regions that are continental in scope. Currently, there are five RIRs:
The Domain Name System (DNS) is the phonebook of the Internet. Humans access information online through domain names, like nytimes.com or espn.com. Web browsers interact through Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. DNS translates domain names to IP addresses so browsers can load Internet resources.
Each device connected to the Internet has a unique IP address which other machines use to find the device. DNS servers eliminate the need for humans to memorize IP addresses such as 192.168.1.1 (in IPv4). Advanced Article > How DNS works.