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Have you heard anyone say: "I look up at the night sky and saw an array of stars". The word array suggests "lots" of items, as opposed to just one. An array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key. An array is stored so that the position of each element can be computed from its index. The simplest type of data structure is a linear array, also called one-dimensional array.
*In a language like Python you don't declare an array as such, but lists function in the same way. There are also numpy arrays. The conventional definition of arrays states that in an array, all the elements need to be of the same "data type". This is not required in a Python list.
In computer science, a linked list is a linear collection of data elements whose order is not given by their physical placement in memory. Instead, each element points to the next. It is a data structure consisting of a collection of nodes which together represent a sequence. In its most basic form, each node contains: data, and a reference (in other words, a link) to the next node in the sequence. This structure allows for efficient insertion or removal of elements from any position in the sequence during iteration.