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06 - Practice Test #1

 1. The image below shows an Intel CPU. Read the paragraph below and fill in the blanks.
The purpose of the Central Processing Unit (CPU) is to carry out program ____________. 
Each CPU is designed to execute a specific group of ____________, the instruction set.
intel.jpg

  instructions

  innuendos

  implements

  innits

 2. The Neumann architecture design consists of a Control Unit, Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU), Memory Unit, Registers and Inputs/Outputs. One of the main purposes of the CPU is to ...

  process data

  connect to the internet

  output an instruction

  print to the printer

 3. The speed that a CPU works at is measured in _____, Hz. Modern processors often run so fast that gigahertz, GHz, is used instead. One gigahertz is one billion _____.

  hertz

  miles per hour

  metres per second

  mertz

 4. The CPU market for desktop (home) computers is controlled by two companies: 1. _____ and Advanced Micro Devices (usually shortened to 2. ______).
Note: There are other CPU manufacturers like ARM, IBM, VIA, MCST, ELVEES, SRISA, NTC 
Module and Sun Microsystems but their CPUs usually have more specific uses (for example 
in mobile phones, cars, game consoles or in the military).

  Intel and AMD

  IpeGix and APPLE

  Microsoft and APPLE

  IBMO and ARMEX

 5. Many CPUs today can do more than 1 billion (1,000,000,000) instructions in a single second. In general, the more a CPU can do in a given time, the faster it is. Read the paragraph below and fill in the blanks.
Some newer processors have ____________ _______. This means that they
have many processors built onto the same chip so that they can
run many instructions at once.

  multiple computers

  many kernels

  multiple cores

  multiple computers

 6. Which of the following tasks can a CPU NOT do?
1. Read data from memory and write data to memory.
2. Add one number with another.
3. Test to see if one number is bigger than another.
4. Move a number from one place to another (for example, 
from one register to another or between a register and memory).
5. Jump to another place in the instruction list.
6. Jump to another place in the instruction list but only if some test is 
true (for example, only if one number is bigger than another).
7. Allow programmers to program directly in Python or Java onto the CPU to 
carry out tasks

Even very complicated programs can be made by combining many simple 
instructions like these.

  No. 7 - You cannot code in Python or Java directly onto a CPU - this doesn't make any sense.

  No. 3 - A CPU can definitely not perform arithmetic operations. Only a calculator can do that!

  No. 1 - A CPU cannot read or write. Ridiculous!

  No. 5 and 6 - Jump? Of course a CPU cannot jump to other instructions.

 7. Types of CPUs: read the paragraph below and fill in the blanks.
There are mainly two different types of CPUs used in modern desktop systems: 
___-bit CPUs and ___-bit CPUs. 

The instructions in a 32-bit CPU are good at handling data that is 32 bits 
in size (most instructions 'think' in 32 bits in a 32-bit CPU). Likewise, a 
64-bit CPU. 

The size of data that a CPU handles best is often called the word size of the CPU. 

Many older CPUs from the 70s, 80s and early 90s and some modern small CPUs) have 
an 8-bit or 16-bit word size.

  32 and 54

  1 and 2

  1 and 2

  32 and 64

 8. The performance of the CPU is directly related to the performance of your personal computer. There are four factors (The 4 Cs) to consider. Fill in the blanks.
The following are all factors that affect the performance of the CPU:

*Note: They are sometimes referred to as the 4 Cs

1.____ speed
2. number of processor _____
3. _____ size
4. ______ type.

  1. coping tech 2. cores 3. cache 4. computer

  1. compartment 2. crux 3. cache 5. cache

  1. computer 2. cache 3. crumpet 4. compartment

  1. clock 2. cores 3. cache 4. cache

 9. Read the following excerpt on 'Clock Speed'. Is it true or false?
The operating frequency of the CPU (also known as the CLOCK SPEED) determines how
fast it can process instructions.

The speed is measured in terms of Hertz, and it is usually lies in the megaHertz (MHz) 
or gigaHertz (GHz) range. A megaHertz means that the CPU can process one million 
instructions per second whereas a gigahertz CPU has the capability to process one 
billion instructions per second. In today's technology, all CPUs run in the gigahertz 
range and you seldom see CPUs with speed in the MHz range anymore.

Theoretically, a 500 MHz CPU is six times slower than a 3 GHz CPU and a 3.6 GHz CPU is
faster than a 3 GHz or a 3.4 GHz CPU. In general, the higher the frequency of a CPU, 
the faster the speed of the computer

  True

  False

 10. The following paragraph also describes Clock Speed. Can you fill in the blanks?
Every computer has a 'clock'. This is a crystal that vibrates, generating 'pulses' that are 
used to control how the different components of a computer system work together. 
If you have a 800Mhz machine, it means the system clock is generating approximately 
800 million pulses every second! 

The ________________________________, the more fetch-decode-execute cycles the CPU can 
perform in a second and (very broadly) the faster your programs should go! 
(There are lots of other factors that may mean this is not the case, however)
clockspeed.png

  the heavier the clock

  the faster the clock

  the lighter the clock

  the slower the clock

 11. The clock speed can be simply defined as:

  the speed at which a very tiny clock can travel to the printer and back in order to aid printing.

  the speed at which the processor can execute instructions. The faster the clock, the more instructions can be processed.

  the weight of the clock hands that tick around the CPU. The faster the hands, the quicker the processing of data.

  the wires inside a tiny crystal called a CPU clock. The faster the vibration of the wires, the better the processing.

 12. Two brains are better than one right? And four brains are even better. Multiple cores are a key factor in performance. Read the following paragraph and fill in the blanks.
 1. A CPU traditionally had one 'core' but processors these days might be dual-core or 
    quad-core for example. 
 
 2. A core is actually a processor with its own cache. 
 
 3. So a dual-core CPU has not one but two processors. 
 
 4. A quad core CPU has four processors
 
 5. Each 'brain' can be working on different parts of a program __________________
  and so this speeds up the overall CPU's performance.
quadcore.png

  at the same time

  carrying out each instruction four times

  one after the other

  waiting patiently for the other one to finish first

 13. Although CPUs fetch instructions from RAM, there is another place they can get instructions from, called _______.

  'computer source'

  'common ground'

  'cache'

  'cartesian fluid'

 14. Cache is like RAM but the one difference is that it is much ___________ to read and write from it rather than from RAM. This obviously speeds up CPU performance.

  slower

  craftier

  lighter

  faster

 15. Which of the following statements is true of CPU cache?
1. Cache will store the most used (most frequently used) instructions
2. It is a lot quicker for the CPU to get data from the cache than from RAM
3. The more cache a computer has, the better the CPU will perform
4. Cache is effectively a small and extremely fast memory
5. Cache isn't exactly cheap - for instance, Intel Core i7 Extreme Processor 
   comes with a 12MB L3 cache, which also explains its hefty price tag of approx. $1,000
6. The larger the cache size, the faster the data transfer and the better the CPU 
   performance

  1 and 2 are true - the rest are false

  None of these statements are true

  All of these statements are true

  1, 5 and 6 are true statements

 16. The less frequently certain data or instructions are accessed, the ____ down the cache level the data or instructions are written.

  wider

  narrower

  lower

  higher

 17. Another important characteristic of a processor is its word size. Read the interesting note below and see if you can define the term 'word size'.
Word size is a key factor when it comes to CPU performance.

The more bits the CPU can work with in one clock cycle, the 
faster the computer will go. 

The early commercial computers like the Spectrum ZX were 8-bit 
computers (in another words, the processor could work on 8 bits 
of data at a time). Things have moved on since the early 1980s 
and you are likely to be using either a 32-bit computer or a 
64-bit computer now.

|It's possible we will all be buying 128-bit computers in the 
very near future. 
wordsize.png

  The is the number of words that a CPU can write to the RAM in one clock cycle

  This is the number of words that a CPU can understand in any given language

  There is no such thing as 'word size'

  This is the number of bits that the CPU can work with in any one clock cycle

 18. Read the excerpt below about the Von Neumann architecture and fill in the blanks.
Von Neumann architecture was first published by John von Neumann in 1945.
His computer architecture design consists of a 

1. Control Unit, 
2. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU), 
3. Memory Unit, 
4. Registers and 
5. Inputs/Outputs.

Von Neumann architecture is based on the ___________ _____________ computer concept, 
where instruction data and program data are stored in the same memory.  

This design is still used in most computers produced today.
jonvon.png

  stupendous prolease

  stoppable precinct

  stock polock

  stored program

 19. Read the excerpt below about the Von Neumann architecture and fill in the blanks.
Von Neumann architecture was first published by John von Neumann in 1945.
His computer architecture design consists of a 

1. Control Unit, 
2. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU), 
3. Memory Unit, 
4. Registers and 
5. Inputs/Outputs.

Von Neumann architecture is based on the ___________ _____________ computer concept, 
where instruction data and program data are stored in the same memory.  

This design is still used in most computers produced today.
jonvon.png

  stock plug

  stupendous pinfork

  still peace

  stored program

 20. This diagram shows a simplistic outline of the architecture of a CPU. What does the Arithmetic and Logic Unit do? (ALU)
Definition #1
-------------
This is where the CPU performs any mathematical sums. For instance,
if the user wishes to add up 2+2, he/she would directly enter the numbers
via the keyboard to the CPU and they are placed on the ALU before they
are added up. The ALU is made up of two main parts:
	
a. The arithmetic part which deals with adding up only numbers
b. The logic part which deals with letters, words, and images.


Definition #2
--------------
This is where the CPU performs the arithmetic and logic operations. 
Every task that your computer carries out is completed here. Even typing 
into a word processor involves adding binary digits to the file, and then 
calculating which pixels on the screen should change so that you can see the 
characters. The ALU’s operations fall into two parts:

a. the arithmetic part, which deals with calculations, eg 1 + 2 = 3
b. the logic part, which deals with any logical comparisons, eg 2>1
cpudiagram.png

  Both definitions are correct

  Both definitions are incorrect

  Definition 2

  Definition 1

 21. A dual core processor may have twice the power but it does not always perform twice as fast. Is this true?

  No - the performance will either double or triple with the dual core over single core

  No - double the cores and you will always have double the performance

  Yes - because the software may not always be able to take full advantage of both processors

  Yes - but I'm not sure why

 22. It is possible for a computer with a slower processor but larger cache memory to be faster in system performance than computers with faster processors but limited cache.

  False

  True

 23. There are levels of cache. Level 1 is extremely fast but small (between 2 - 64KB). Some CPUs also have Level 3 cache. How would you define Level 2?

  Level 2 cache is the fastest type of cache and is larger in size than Level 1

  Level 2 cache is fairly fast and medium-sized (256KB - 2MB)

  Level 2 cache is extremely slow but medium-sized (256KB - 2MB)

  Level 2 cache is exactly the same as Level 1 cache but stored externally

 24. When an instruction is fetched from 'main memory' it is copied into the cache. Why?

  So that the cache is aware of the instruction being carried out and can store it until it has been processed

  So that the cache holds a copy of the instruction incase it is deleted elsewhere

  So that if it is needed again soon after, it can be fetched from the cache which is quicker than going back to main memory

  So that the cache can be enlarged as a large cache is generally a good thing

 25. True or False? All processor activities begin on a clock pulse, although some activities may take more than one clock cycle to complete.
Note: One clock cycle per second = 1 Hertz (hz)
Clock speed is measured in Gigahertz(GHz) - about 1 billion
cycles per second!

  True

  False

 26. CPU designs vary greatly but most of them all share the same key components including the clock, control unit, arithmetic logic unit, registers and buses. What does the control unit do?
1. It controls the way data moves around the CPU
2. It controls and monitors the flow of data between the 
CPU and other components such as input devices, memory, 
graphics card etc
3. It executes the instructions provided by the program

  Only option 1

  Only option 2

  1 and 3

  Only option 1

 27. Read the definition below. Which part of the CPU does this?
Regulate and control timing signals for the computer, which means 
it is responsible for instigating what is called the 
machine cycle, or the pulse of information packets, to make sure 
information packets are sent out regularly (every few milliseconds)

  The whole CPU itself

  The CU (Control Unit)

  The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

  The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

 28. A bus is an integral part of the CPU. What is a bus?

  A set of parallel wires connecting components of a computer (typically has 8,16,32 or 64 'lines')

  A set of copper ducts, shaped like a London bus, which flashes 'red' when filled with data

  A small channel filled with water to cool the CPU

  A microscopic bus like vehicle that carries data to and fro

 29. The processor is connected to main memory by three main buses. What are their names?

  The control bus, adhoc bus and dataformation bus

  The concept bus, adverse bus and depth bus

  The control bus, address bus and data bus

  The computer bus, adflyer bus and dongle bus

 30. The below diagram shows a list of registers in the CPU.What are registers?
registers.png

  Registers are where the CPU stores information about every user, like how teachers have a register about students

  Registers are high speed storage areas in the CPU and all data must be stored in a register before it can be processed

  Registers are copper writes that use binary signals to communicate with a programmer

  Registers are microscopic written letters that the CPU stores to keep track of all the data

 31. The memory unit consists of RAM, sometimes referred to as primary or main memory. Unlike a hard drive (secondary memory), this memory is fast and also directly accessible by the CPU.

  False

  True

 32. Instructions data and program data were not always stored in the same memory. The 'stored program concept' and the architecture behind most modern computers is called:
nonvonjon_computer.jpg

  Charles Babbage Architecture

  Von Neumann Architecture

  Stored Neumann Architecture

  Stored Jon Von Architecture

 33. The object in the image below was a 4 bit ______________________ released by Intel in 1971. It was among the very first produced and had a clock speed of 740kHz.
firstCPU.jpg

  control unit

  arithmetic logic unit

  computer

  central processing unit

 34. A CPU is placed on the motherboard. The following diagram shows a labelled motherboard - where would the CPU be placed?
motherboard.jpg

  G

  D

  M

  A

 35. On the motherboard on your computer, the tiny little CPU is often placed underneath a fan (like shown in the image. What is this called and why is it needed?
heatsink.jpg

  bus fan: a fan that cools down the wires around the CPU - it is only in place to cool the bus wires

  bus fan: a fan that cools down the wires around the CPU - it is only in place to cool the bus wires

  insect fan: a fan that is in place to stop insects from getting inside the CPU

  heating fan: a heating device that spins around to warm up the computer on a cold day

 36. A Central Processing Unit is also referred to as a microprocessor. True or false?

  True

  False

 37. What common household devices, other than computers, contain microprocessors?
washing	machines 
microwaves 
televisions 
set-top boxes 
central heating systems 
cameras 
DVD players

  None of the listed items

  Only microwaves

  Only washing machines

  All of the listed items

 38. Read the excerpt below and decide whether the whole statement about modern CPUs is true or false.
Electronics began with the development of the transistor in the 1950s. Transistors are 
tiny electronic switches and amplifiers. Several thousand transistors can be put on a 
piece of silicon with a surface area of just one square mm.

A modern CPU that would fit in the palm of your hand can contain in excess of 2 billion 
transistors!
small-cpu-2.jpg

  True

  False

 39. Ever wondered how your brain is involved in executing an instruction? For instance, if someone says "Pass the salt"....what happens?
Voxel-man-brain.jpg

  The instruction is decoded, and then it is fetched

  The instruction is first fetched (received), decoded (made sense of) and then executed.

  The instruction is executed and then it is decoded and fetched

  The instruction is executed immediately

 40. The fetch-decode-execute cycle is the sequence of steps that the CPU follows to process instructions. This is also sometimes called the ...

  instruction cycle

  brain cycle

  computer cycle

  michelin star cycle

 41. Here is a diagram (Source: BBC Bitesize) of the Fetch Decode Execute cycle. Out of the following options, what happens first?
fde.png

  The processor fetches the instruction value from this memory location

  The instruction is immediately decoded and executed

  The program counter gives an address value in the memory of where the next instruction is

  The processor checks the program counter to see which instruction to run next

 42. The next steps that occur in the Fetch Decode Execute cycle are shown in the excerpt below. Can you fill in the blanks?
The program counter gives an address value in the memory of where 
the next instruction is.

The processor fetches the instruction value from this memory 
location.

Once the instruction has been fetched, it needs to be decoded and 
executed. For example, this could involve taking one value, putting 
it into the ALU, then taking a different value from a register and 
adding the two together.

Once this is complete, the processor _________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

This cycle is repeated until the program ends.

  goes back to the program counter to find the next instruction

  goes to the ALU to check to see if there are any more calculations to perform

  goes back to execute an instruction

  goes back to the CU (Control Unit) to find the next instruction

 43. The three stages of the FDE cycle are 'Fetch', 'Decode' and 'Execute'. What happens in the fetch stage?
#1. In the fetch stage, the ALU provides a pointer to the program
counter. The program counter then executes the instruction directly
by sending instructions via the data and address bus. 


#2. In the fetch stage, the program counter provides the memory
address of the next instruction. This is transferred through the 
address bus to the memory and the instruction is transferred to the
instruction register of the CPU through the data bus.

  Neither are correct

  Both #1 and #2 could be correct

  #2 is correct

  #1 is correct

 44. What happens in the decode stage of the FDE cycle?

  The decoder in the ALU executes the instruction

  The decoder held in the program counter dissolves the instruction in order to understand its true meaning

  The decoder in the control unit works out what the instruction means (decodes the instruction)

  The decoder sends the instruction to the program counter to be counted

 45. What happens in the 'execute' part of the FDE cycle?

  The ALU executes the instruction and sends it to the printer

  The control unit instructs the ALU to perform the computations required and the result is stored in one of the registers

  The registers register and execute the instruction and then send it to the program counter to be executed

  The control unit decides whether or not to execute the instruction by counting the number of bits the data has

 46. Why is the fetch decode execute cycle called a cycle?
fde2.png

  Because it cycles around at millions of bits per second and this is the whir you hear when you switch on your PC

  Because it looks a little like a bicycle and hence its name

  Because a cycle refers to something that cannot repeat itself

  Because the cycle is repeated over and over as each instruction in the program is executed and complete

 47. Describe the role of the 'program counter' in the fetch decode execute cycle.

  This is a register that programs the CPU

  This is a register in the CPU which contains the memory address of the next instruction to be processed

  This is a register that decodes the instructions as they come in

  This is a register that executes each instruction as it deals with programming

 48. The program counter stores the memory address of the next instruction to be fetched. What happens when that address has been used?

  The progam counter explodes and no longer functions correctly

  The program counter transforms into the ALU

  The program counter is incremented by 1 so it now has the address of the next instruction

  The program counter switches off automatically until it is manually switched on

 49. The image below shows a creative website that made a million dollars by creating a website with a million pixels and selling pixels to customers. What is a pixel?
milliondollarhomepage.jpg

  pixels are microscopic numbers that make up binary numbers

  Graphics or Images are made up of tiny blocks (dots that make up an image) called pixels.

  pixels are just numbers that represent an image.

  pixels are large images that can be broken down into binary bits

 50. True or False? The more pixels on the screen, the higher the resolution and the better the quality of the picture will be.

  True

  False