03 - Operating Systems

 1. Robot Operating System (ROS) is robotics middleware (i.e. collection of software frameworks for robot software development)



 2. What is an operating system?

  It is a piece of software that controls the general operation of a computer and provides an easy way for us to interact with computers

  It is a piece of hardware that allows us to interact and interface with the computer

  It is a piece of operational hardware that controls only the CPU and the internal registers

  It is a piece of hardware and software (combined) that controls the operating of the entire computer system

 3. Which two of the following options are valid operating systems

  Linux & Google Chrome

  Linux & Windows

  Google Chrome & Windows

  iOS & Yahoo

 4. The operating system provides a helpful ______________ which aids the user in their interactions with the hardware (by hiding the computer's internal complexity)





 5. What does GUI stand for?

  Graphical Utility Icons

  Graphical User Interactions

  Graphical Utility Interchange

  Graphical User Interface

 6. The operating system on most computers and smartphones provide an interface that has icons, titles and menus. This type of interface is the GUI.



 7. Which of the following is an advantage of a CLI (Command Line Interface)?

  can be much faster and more flexible than any other type of interface

  It has text that is easy to read

  There is no advantage - it is a poor interface in comparison to all the others

  The commands have to be remembered by the programmer

 8. The OS makes it possible to run several programs at once. Several programs can be stored in RAM at the same time, however only one program at a time is processed by the CPU.



 9. Read the following excerpt and decide whether it is true or false. Look up "mainframes" and early computers.
The earliest computers were mainframes that lacked any
form of operating system. Each user had sole use of the
machine for a scheduled period of time and would arrive
at the computer with program and data, often on punched 
paper cards and magnetic or paper tape.

The program would be loaded into the machine, and the 
machine would be set to work until the program completed 
or crashed. Programs could generally be debugged via a 
control panel using dials, toggle switches and panel lights.



 10. A program can be in only one of three possible states at a time. What are these three states?

  Breaking, Refreshing & Analysing

  Running, Waiting & Runnable

  Jogging, Waiting & Runnable

  Running, Refreshing & Waiting

 11. Read the following historical excerpt and decide whether it is true or false. (source: Wikipedia)
The first operating system

The GM-NAA I/O input/output system of General Motors and North 
American Aviation is considered to be the first operating 
system for the IBM 704 computer.

It was created in 1956 by Robert L. Patrick of General Motors 
Research and Owen Mock of North American Aviation



 12. Fill in the blanks…
The operating system uses _____ to set aside memory for the temporary storage of data





 13. Which of the following is a feature of a device driver?

  Handles the translation of requests between a device and the computer

  Manages which program runs in the RAM

  Increments the program counter by 1

  Gives the illusion that multiple programs are running simultaneously

 14. Fill in the blanks…
The operating system organises where and how ____ are 
stored, deleted, read, found and ______.

  files, created

  folders, created

  files, repaired

  folders, shared

 15. Files can become corrupt if a computer is turned off before a program is copied to a new location.



 16. Which of the following in the list are functions of a typical operating system?
1. interface - provides a user interface so it is easy to interact
with the computer. It also manages the CPU - runs applications 
and executes and cancels processes

2. multi-tasks - allows multiple applications to run at the same time

3. manages memory - transfers programs into and out of memory, 
allocates free space between programs, and keeps track of memory 
usage, manages peripherals

4. opens, closes and writes to peripheral devices such as storage
attached to the computer organises

5. creates a file system to organise files and directories

6. security - provides security through user accounts and passwords

7. utilities - provides tools for managing and organising hardware

  1,2,3,5 and 7 only

  All of the items in the list are functions of operating systems

  1,2,3 and 4 only.

  None of the items in the list are functions of operating systems

 17. The interface that an operating system provides is either :

  text based or windows based

  graphical or mouse based

  graphical or text based

  apple or windows based

 18. The OS uses programs called ________________ to manage and control connections with peripherals (like printers)

  memory bits

  device drivers

  device patches

  RAM buffers

 19. Which of the following statements are true?

  Protocols are arranged in 100s of layers in order for an operating system to function

  Buffering reduces the amount of ROM you have

  Each peripheral is programmed with its own machine code

  Device drivers are used to connect the computer to the internet

 20. What does the operating system decide?

  All of the above are descriptions of what the operating system is responsible for deciding.

  What happens when there is not enough main memory to get the job done

  How memory is shared between processes

  How main memory is used

 21. The job of working out when to move on (swap) to carry out another process is known as what?
Hint: Time slices are allocated in _____________. 


  Disk defragmentation



 22. The Operating System uses ________________to set aside memory for the temporary storage of data
*buffers are also used when you stream online content





 23. The operating system deals with "File Management" and how data is organised into files. This makes it easier for ________



  Operating on particular types of files

  the user to see files using programs like the Windows File Explorer or Mac OS X Finder.

 24. The OS uses applications called _______________ software to allow the user to control and manage the computer (often acessed via control panel or special menu)

  office documents




 25. There are "maintenance" utilities and "security" utilities - what is Disk defragmentation software?

  A type of maintenance utility that helps files to be copied over into RAM

  A type of security utility that protects all files from hackers

  A type of security utility - which helps rearranging information on a disk to improve file access times

  A type of maintenance utility - which helps rearranging information on a disk to improve file access times

 26. Examples of "security" utility software includes: useraccounts, encryption programs, firewalls and anti-virus software



 27. Mobile phones do not have operating systems



 28. To summarise, what four things could be said to be the 'purpose' of operating systems?
1. to control the hardware of the system 

2. to manage the running of the monitor 

3. to manage software (and how it is loaded into main memory) 

4. to provide security (user and password control) 

5. to provide word processing and spreadsheet facilities to the user 

6. to provide a user interface (to allow interaction with a computer, 
hiding the complexity of the hardware from the user)





 29. The kernel is a key component of any operating system. Read the following excerpt and decide whether it is true:
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's 
operating system, with complete control over everything in the system. 
On most systems, it is one of the first programs loaded on start-up 
(after the bootloader). It handles the rest of start-up as well as 
input/output requests from software, translating them into data-processing 
instructions for the central processing unit. It handles memory and 
peripherals like keyboards, monitors, printers, and speakers.



 30. An operating system (or 'OS') controls the general operation of a computer, and provides an easy way for us to ______________
Note: When the OS runs a piece of software it has to find the program
files on the storage drive, load them into main memory, and instruct
the CPU to start executing the program from the beginning

  write in binary to control the CPU and fully understand the operations inside

  interact with computers and run applications.

  interact with other people on the internet and on social media

  interact directly with the CPU and write machine code

 31. Many games consoles have their own unique operating systems



 32. Functions of an operating system include: I,M,M,M,M,O,S,U where I is interface, O is organises, S is security and U is utilities. What are the four Ms?

  Manages the ROM, Manages the arithmetic logic unit, manages the coding, Multi-tasks

  Manages the human, Manages the monitor, Manages the mouse and Multi-misks

  Manages the CPU, Manages Memory, Manages Peripherals and Multi-tasks

  All of the above are valid options

 33. An OS interface can be either:

  ceramic or CPU based

  multi-task or single-task based

  glass or silicon based

  graphical or text-based

 34. Advantages of using a CLI (Command line interface) include:

  All of the above are valid options

  a faster way to get tasks done

  uses less memory

  more flexibility than a GUI

 35. Some games, such as Minecraft, also make use of a command line tool which allows the user to bypass the main interface and alter the game's mechanics or environment.



 36. A real-time OS could be installed in special purpose embedded systems like robots, cars, and modems



 37. Single-user and single-task OS: These are typically installed on single-user devices like _______.

  networked machines


  main frame servers

  robotic arms

 38. Single-user and multitask OS: These are usually installed and found on contemporary personal computers



 39. Multi-user OS: These tend to be installed in network environments where _____________ Server OS's are examples of multi-user operating systems.

  many users have to share resources.

  none of these options are valid

  multiple comptuers use a single server

  a single user has to share resources with the world

 40. A network OS is typically used to share resources such as files and printers in a network setup or environment