11 - Hardware and Software

 1. Computing hardware is an essential component in any computer system. How would you define hardware?
==============#Description of image below===============
Hardware parts from four early computers, 1962. From left to right: 
ENIAC board, EDVAC board, ORDVAC board, and BRLESC-I board, 
showing the trend toward miniaturization.

  Hardware refers to any component that has a physical presence and can therefore be touched

  Hardware refers to the computer system as a whole

  Hardware refers to any component including software that is part of a physical computer

  Hardware refers to any part of a computer that is 'hard'. RAM and monitors would not count as they are not as durable as copper

 2. Read the excerpt below that describes the different categories of devices. Which of the following is NOT Hardware?
Input Devices – these include any kind of device which can be used 
for getting data into the computer system from the outside world. 
Some examples include; keyboard, mouse, microphone, heat sensors, 
switches, touch screens, digital cameras and so on.

Processing Devices – this usually refers to the Central Processing 
Unit (CPU) which carries out program instructions.

Storage Devices – these include any device which will store data 
until it is needed for processing. This can include temporary 
storage devices, like the computer’s memory, or long-term storage 
devices like hard-drives, DVD drives or tape drives, etc.

Communication Devices – these deal with the transfer of data 
from one computer system to another and include routers which link 
networks and modems which allow computers to communicate data via the Internet.

Output Devices – these include any devices which can provide data 
in a useful format to a user. For example a computer monitor, 
speakers, printers etc.

  None of these devices are examples of hardware

  #4 - Communication devices do not count as Hardware

  #2 - Processing devices do not count as Hardware

  They are all hardware

 3. Peripheral Devices are hardware devices but are ______________________________.They are typically connected by cables (USB, network, firewire etc.) or wirelessly (Bluetooth, wireless network links etc.).
=====Examples of peripheral devices=============

Examples include keyboards, mice, scanners, printers, external 
hard-drives etc.

  outside the CPU and ajdacent to the RAM

  external to the main body of the computer.

  inside the CPU

  internal to the main body of the computer

 4. The Operating System (OS) of a computer is a set of hardware devices that control the way the user controls the computer and access application software. The OS also controls the way application software accesses computer hardware such as input and output



 5. Operating systems are system's _______________ and examples include: Microsoft Windows XP, Microsoft Windows 7, Mac OS X, LINUX and UNIX are all examples of operating systems used on computers.
Note: Android and iOS are examples of operating systems used on 

  communication devices


  CPU devices


 6. CPUs need instructions to tell it what to do. These instructions are collected together to form a computer program. Fill in the blanks
_____________ is a computer program that 
contains the set of instructions needed
by the CPU in order to perform a specific 




  CPU matrix

 7. What are the two main types of software?

  Application Software and Systems Software

  Systems and Softedge

  Hardware and Cloud

  Cloud and Processable

 8. How would you define Systems software? Read the text on the image below to help you select your answer.

  Hardware chips that relate directly to systems hardware and operation of the CPU

  Programs that communicate directly with the CPU and RAM

  Programs that manage the operation of the computer (for example how to boot up the system when you switch it on)

  Any cloud based software that is system-specific (for example cloud storage dealing with a particular location)

 9. Application software is a computer program written for a specific purpose (e.g. Word processing software or a music player). Read the excerpt below to answer the question.
Type 1
Microsoft Excel comes under "Application software" because it is a
spreadsheet software created for a specific purpose. (e.g. 
performing calculations and modelling etc)

Type 2
Some software is even more specific, in that it is tailored to
a particular company or very specific in its purpose (e.g.
accounting software created for a small finance company)

How are these different types of software defined?

  Type 1: Microsoft Software Type 2: Benign Software

  Type 1: General Purpose Software/Off the shelf e.g. Microsoft Word Type 2: Bespoke Software e.g. Accounting software for finance company

  Type 1: Bespoke software e.g. Microsoft Word Type 2: Off the shelf/General Purpose software e.g Accounting software for finance company

  Type 1: Systems Software e.g Microsoft Word Type 2: Generic Software e.g. accounting software for finance company

 10. A printer driver (see excerpt below) is an example of:
In computers, a printer driver or a print 
processor is a piece of software that 
converts the data to be printed to the form 
specific to a printer. 

The purpose of printer drivers is to allow 
applications to do printing without being 
aware of the technical details of each
printer model.

  Bespoke application Software

  Systems software

  Cloud Storage instructions

  Application software